Metalepsis is a figure of speech in which a word or a phrase from figurative speech is used in a new context.
Catachresis is the name given to many different types of figure of speech in which a word or phrase is being applied in a way that significantly departs from conventional (or traditional) usage. Catachresis refers to the original incompleteness that is a part of all systems of meaning. Catachresis is often used to convey extreme emotion or alienation.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is called not by its own name but rather by the name of something associated in meaning with that thing or concept.
Synecdoche meaning “simultaneous understanding” is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something, or vice-versa.
other favorites/interesting ones:
Alliteration: series of words that begin with the same consonant.
Adynaton: hyperbole taken to such extreme lengths insinuating a complete impossibility.
Antanaclasis: repetition of a single word, but with different meanings.
Antithesis: juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas.
Metaphor: identifies one thing as being the same as some unrelated other thing, thus strongly implying the similarities between the two.
Homographs: words we write identically but which have a differing meaning.
Hyperbole: exaggeration of a statement.
Paraprosdokian: unexpected ending or truncation of a clause.
Solecism: trespassing grammatical and syntactical rules.
Spoonerism: switching place of syllables within two words in a sentence yielding amusement.
Superlative: declaring something the best within its class i.e. the ugliest, the most precious.
Synathroesmus: agglomeration of adjectives to describe something or someone.
Accismus: expressing the want of something by denying it.
Allegory: extended metaphor in which a symbolic story is told.
Allusion: covert reference to another work of literature or art.
Ambiguity: phrasing which can have two meanings.
Apophasis: invoking an idea by denying its invocation.
Categoria: candidly revealing an opponent’s weakness.
Cliché: overused phrase or theme.
Dubitatio: expressing doubt over one’s ability to hold speeches, or doubt over other ability.
Ekphrasis: lively describing something you see, often a painting.
Epanorthosis: immediate and emphatic self-correction, often following a slip of the tongue.
Hypophora: answering one’s own rhetorical question at length.
Innuendo: having a hidden meaning in a sentence that makes sense whether it is detected or not.
Litotes: emphasizing the magnitude of a statement by denying its opposite.
Meiosis: use of understatement, usually to diminish the importance of something.
Oxymoron: using two terms together, that normally contradict each other.
Paradox: use of apparently contradictory ideas to point out some underlying truth.
Paraprosdokian: phrase in which the latter part causes a rethinking or reframing of the beginning.
Sesquipedalianism: use of long and obscure words.
Synchoresis: a concession made for the purpose of retorting with greater force.
Synesthesia: description of one kind of sense impression by using words that normally describe another.
Truism: a self-evident statement.
Zeugma: use of a single verb to describe two or more actions.
listening while reading: Sara Bareilles – Once Upon Another Time